• Wole Soyinka on Yoruba Weddings, Nigerian Movies, and Making Traditions New

    The Danger of Naming Art Before It Has Been Made

    I once hallucinated at a Heathrow Airport hotel—the Sofitel—the consequence of a flight cancellation that imposed an unscheduled 24-hour layover. Nothing for it but to chafe at the delay and submit myself to my slave driver, commonly known as the laptop. I hadn’t meant to stay so long at it—just a few hours, I thought—but it turned out to be one of those driven sessions that went on nearly the whole day. When I broke off, I was feeling quite drained. So, time for a recuperative stroll, a drink, perhaps take the train to London—or whatever. 

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    I stepped out of my room into the familiar, long corridors and its geometric, functionally sparse architecture, turned a corner, and—I was hit by an explosion of colors! Instinctively I ducked back and raced to my room—just to get my bearings, as I wasn’t sure where I was, what day it was, in short, even who I was. The possibility that I was dead actually occurred to me very briefly and, frankly, the sensation wasn’t all that bad.

    What had slammed across my sight lines in that brief step into the right-angled corridor was this: goddesses in multicolored, chiffony attires had taken over the space, intersecting and floating up and down the seemingly suspended corridor. Some were grouped around the lifts—elevators to some—entering and exiting and swirling up all over the adjacent stairways. The air had taken on an unaccustomed flavor. Clouds of incense and multitextured smells assailed my nostrils. 

    I checked my surroundings—there was my suitcase, the coagulated remains of the Nespresso cup, my laptop that I had just abandoned. I looked out of the window—all familiar sights. So, I girded my loins, readied myself, and stepped out again. If goddesses had taken over, then Ogun’s man was prepared to take them on! 

    When I arrived at that decision corner, lo and behold, they had all vanished. I had been away from that first sighting for no more than ten minutes—where had they all gone? So, I walked slowly to the area where I had sighted them—around the lifts and stairs. Then I heard sounds—it was clear, they had been clustering to descend. Sure enough, when I arrived at the lifts and looked over the railing to the floor below, there they all were, milling around in their saris, chatting in subdued voices.

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    The landing below plus an open space had been turned into a reception room—a wedding, of course! The scene below looked as if a rainbow had fragmented and its pieces had glided down below. Seated at one end of the room, presiding over the proceedings, was a Hindu god I easily recognized—Ganesha of the elephant head. At last I could breathe normally. 

    At home, a wedding without aso-ebi—the selected festive attire—is simply unthinkable.

    The regular hotel clientele stood at discreet distances, sat at the bar, entranced, all travel boredom and weariness evidently forgotten. It was just the break I needed, an unintended fillip to my flagging energy. I remained on the hanging corridor and indulged in a panoramic, bird’s-eye view of the ceremony for about 30 minutes and then, suitably energized, returned to my room and my taskmaster. 

    This hardly needs observing, but perhaps we should state it anyway, just to make sure it is not missed. It has nothing to do with whether one embraces or rejects the mythology from which a cultural practice has stemmed. If that were the case, millions from diverse religions and races would not flock to admire shrines to the Japanese Shinto gods, the massive statues of Buddha and his temples, Notre Dame, or the horizon of minarets that crown the Muslim landscape from Marrakesh to Chechnya and even Italy, home of the Roman Catholic Vatican. We do not have to be partisans of the extravagant geography of love to admire the Taj Mahal any more than turn Irish to partake of the feast of St. Patrick that turns even fountains green in the United States. 

    Then I had a good laugh at myself—two, as a matter of fact. One, of course, to have actually believed I was hallucinating, but that was understandable. The second laugh had a history. Of course, I had witnessed, even participated in, such scenes! At home, a wedding without aso-ebi—the selected festive attire—is simply unthinkable. But they used to irritate me no end. Both event and attire too ostentatious most of the time, I feel, so my temperament instinctively recoils from such assemblage, especially as it runs rampant on the feet of expensiveness.

    Many use it—ironically—as an instrument of exclusion. They ensure that they select material whose price is beyond what they consider the means or class situation of the unwanted—etc., etc. Weddings now even employ makeup specialists, sometimes flown in when the event is outside the national borders. There is no question regarding their expertise—they are truly professional—but by the time they are finished, all the faces look virtually the same, the favorite target appearing to be a Japanese mask. What that signifies, I do not really know, but perhaps one should find it bothersome. If the basic motif is the geisha look, then my wife has attended her last wedding event! 

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    Seriously, though, a subtle problematique is being inserted into the arena of human adornment on the Nigerian scene, which is truly fascinating and complicated. It is gratifying because the women evidently raise some serious questions about what it means to be feminine—how to be feminine without, however, losing ground to male dictation.

    Iya mi osoronga is all very well, they seem to say; Mr. W. S. may pontificate all he wants about female power exercised through the gelede, the Earth-Mother masquerade of the Yoruba; external pressure movements may turn patronizing over what they consider a female absolute—to be feminist. But what is undeniable is that the Yoruba woman has chosen how to empower herself, selecting and creating from internal options, within her own community of self-conscious females. 

    Among the Yoruba, the basic principle is to reduce difference and individuation to the barest minimum, that minimum being most conspicuously in the style of the head wrap.

    And there is justification for this in the phenomenal rise of women in all social directions—entrepreneurship, the arts (including the performance arts), politics (including powerful positions in governance), even in that specialized, yet prevalent discipline and business known as corruption! It is quite a quantum leap, to consider how many top-notch professional women have one leg dangling over the prison gates at home. The aso-ebi—and especially the gele, head wrap, explosion—brought up these musings, I suspect. 

    Before we depart from the subject, let it be retained in our minds that the aso-ebi, which means, literally, family or relations attire, is really a bonding mechanism built around a social aesthetic plinth. It signifies that not merely the family or the “extended family,” but rather the entire community, is declaring on that day—and through activities that lead up to the prime day—that they are all one of the same family, the family of the celebrant.

    And for that reason, the women—and men also in increasing numbers—ask in advance for their apportionment of the material that will be worn by the immediate celebrants. They contribute to a common purse, which reduces costs, and turn up on the day in uniform regalia. Aso-ebi is uniquely Yoruba but is increasingly copied by other ethnic groups. In this department of dressing up for an occasion, there is an obvious contrast between cultures, especially among women.

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    Farcical to violent scenes are stock in European and American films, where two women meet at a function and one or both burst into tears—or turn around and dash back home—because they are wearing identical dresses. I confess I couldn’t tell whether the Indian wedding party at Sofitel was propelled more by differences than identicality—in my condition, all the saris blended together, multicolored, multitextured, but united by the distinctive sari design and its physical transformation of the body.

    Among the Yoruba, the basic principle is to reduce difference and individuation to the barest minimum, that minimum being most conspicuously in the style of the head wrap, sash, or iborun—the over-the-shoulder shawl. Same material, different styles. This, incredibly, has given rise to one of the most remarkable innovations seen in Nigerian fashion in recent years, spearheaded by a multimedia artist and batik maker, Nike Okundayo.

    I suspect that she invents a new style every day—indeed, there is no question that she has created a totally new aesthetic. I have peeped in at her workshop occasionally and actually been present at some of her headgear parades—privately tagged the Gele Gala in my mind. What can be done with a piece of tissue is simply astounding: the intricacies of winding are a study in fabric contortions and finger control.

    She has done demonstrations in Europe and the Caribbean. This is one of those undeniable instances of the evolution of a virtually new organism from a tradition and, as usual, one that can be turned into a reinforcement of positive social traditional usage or the opposite—ostentation and garishness. Even the negative propensities would still qualify for an aesthetic, however, but a distinctly Nigerian, exhibitionist, even gaudily class-conscious aesthetic, pretentious one. 

    It is that latter option on which the N****wood film industry has largely fastened, though, of course, there are uplifting exceptions. Indeed a totally new generation  is fast abandoning what, in the United States, for instance, used to be known as Blaxploitation. Tradition, for many of the enthusiasts, has meant virtually the equivalent of the Hollywood mumbo jumbo that passed for the image of African traditional healers, all feathers and leather strips, gourd rattling, and clumsy special effects used lavishly, often without rhyme or reason, the conflation of what I described before as simply cultic demonism, with no shred of the sacred in what are supposed to be solemn rituals.

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    But then, as we say in Yoruba, Won ni amukun, eru ori re wo. O ni, at’isale ni (They tell the knock-kneed: the load on your head is skewed. He replies, no, the imbalance began at the base). Point: don’t expect a straight shoot if the root itself is crookedly earthed. Let the N-word phenomenon serve as a lesson on the neglect of some basic traditional principles that are pertinent to the creative process.

    In revealing himself a dyslexic, the American writer Richard Ford qualifies this by explaining that he actually sees words as images. No, I wouldn’t make such a far-out claim for myself. However, I do subscribe to the view that words have shapes, which are in turn evocative of more than the mere sound of them or their literal meaning. Indeed, one can claim that some images become eventually attached to words with such intimacy that they can no longer be prised apart— hmm, I appear to be getting closer and closer to Richard Ford’s position.

    All right, let us simply try and sum it up thus: the power of suggestion goes beyond mere suggestion. A word can distort the palpable reality that one’s own senses have already determined. Where such a word is deployed as sum or part of values, as a category of phenomena, even as a loose umbrella for a family of products or objects, it can distort other entities under that very umbrella completely, influencing their seizure in our minds in unintended directions. Where we are concerned with creative activity, the word can contract the scope, or reduce the quality within the overall undertaking.

    In short, a verbal choice can inhibit or expand imagination. It can foreclose adventurousness through association, narrow our scope of creative choices, even without our being conscious of a restrictive manipulation. Thus it is with naming—be this of humans, objects, or relationships. Let us extend our illustration beyond the Yoruba—it conveniently happens that recently, I was invited to contribute to events to mark the 450th anniversary of William Shakespeare’s birth. N****wood unquestionably on my mind, I chose to address this very issue of names in my contribution. I shall proceed to paraphrase my observations on the Yoruba culture of naming, with Shakespearean parallels.

    Wole Soyinka
    Wole Soyinka
    Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian playwright, poet, and political activist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986. His many publications include You Must Set Forth at Dawn and Of Africa.

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